Web-Based Mathematics Education
Introduction and Background
Web-based learning can extend the reach of education and significantly
broaden its impact and influence.
There are many approaches but few are effective for teaching/learning
Given the state of mathematics education in the United States and
other countries, an effective way to deliver teaching and learning
materials over the Internet/Web holds much promise.
While various methods have been used to
display mathematical formulas in Web pages and to make simple mathematical
computations accessible via CGI programs or X Windows, a
general and effective system for accessing, producing and delivering
mathematical content is still the subject of research and development.
Investigators at the W3 Consortium (W3C) and elsewhere are working
to make publishing mathematical materials on the Web easy.
MathML defines an XML
language for markup of mathematical expressions with support for
both presentation encoding (display layout) and content encoding
The IBM digital publishing group has released the
a Web browser plug-in that dynamically formats and displays
documents containing scientific and mathematical expressions coded in
TeX/LaTeX. Some MathML is also supported.
Techexplorer also allows a user
to send expressions to a fixed compute server for evaluation.
MathType, from Design Science Inc.,
supports interactive creation of mathematical notations
for web pages and documents. The same company also offers
WebEQ that provides a Java applet
to display WebTeX and MathML in a browser.
The W3C Amaya Web browser demonstrates
a prototype implementation of MathML which allows
users to browse and edit Web pages containing mathematical expressions.
Together with the rest of the Web page,
these expressions are manipulated through a WYSIWYG interface.
The increasing acceptance and
software support for MathML were evident
at the recent MathML International Conference 2000.
Mathematical content viewing on a Web page is static.
On the Internet, end-users, especially educational
applications, can make good use of
dynamic access to mathematical computing.
``Internet Accessible Mathematical Computation''
has been the subject of the 1999 IAMC Workshop (part of ISSAC'99)
and the 2001 IAMC Workshop (part of ISSAC'01).
The full-day workshops underscore the on-going interest in making
mathematical information and computation easily available in the
new communication age
For more background and related activities,
please refer to the Proceedings of the IAMC Workshops
the IAMC homepage
and the Workshop on The Future of Mathematical Communication
At the Institute for
Computational Mathematics (ICM/Kent), efforts
have been made to build a distributed IAMC framework
which can support both interactive and transparent access to mathematical
computation on the Internet/Web through the Mathematical
Researchers have begun to make attempts to deliver mathematical
education materials over the Web/Internet.
Already, we can find many Web sites providing courses and tools
for mathematics education.
WME Efforts, Related Systems, and Websites
Here is a growing list of projects and systems related to
making mathematics education available/accessible on the Web:
WME-Related Conferences and Workshops
International Conference on Information Technology (ITCC),
ITE Track on
Education Technology, Curriculum and Assessment
Internet Accessible Mathematical Computation (IAMC)
WME Framework Project at ICM/Kent
The WME Framework project is a collaboration between
ICM/Kent USA, the Department
of Computer Science, Lanzhou University (Ganzu Province),
and the Mathematics Mechanization Research Center (MMRC),
Academia Sinica (Beijing) China. Currently
the following researchers are involved:
Li Lian: Professor, College of Information Science, Lanzhou University, Gansu, China
Wang Jimin: Professor, College of Information Science, Lanzhou University, Gansu, China
Liu Zhuojun: Professor, MMRC, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China
Lin Dongdai: Professor, MMRC, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China
Norbert Kajler: Professor, Ecole des Mines de Paris, Paris, France
Simon Gray: Professor, Ashland University, Ashland Ohio, USA
Keehong Song: Associate Professor, Pusan National University, South Korea (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Paul S. Wang: Professor, ICM/Kent, USA
Michael Mikusa: Professor, College of Education, Kent State University, USA
Xiao Zou: Ph.D., College of Information Science, Lanzhou University and
Computer Science graduate student ICM/Kent,
David Chiu, Xun Lai, Saleh AL-Shomrani: Computer Science graduate Students, ICM/Kent, USA,
Mrs. Grace Dorene Ellis, Mr. Jacob Miller and Mrs. Kim Yoak (teachers of mathmatics at Kimpton Middle School, Munroe Falls, Ohio, USA)
Mrs. Katie Jones: (mathematics teacher at Lake Middle School, Hartville, Ohio, USA)
WME in Middle School---OBR funded pilot project, pilot site, R&D.
WME Framework Publications
Web-based Mathematics Education with MathChat, by David Chiu,
Proceedings, IEEE ITCC 04.
Web-based Mathematics Education: MeML Design and Implementation, by Paul S. Wang, Yi Zhou, and Xiao Zou,
Proceedings, IEEE ITCC 04.
WME: Towards a Web for Mathematics Education
, by Paul S. Wang, Norbert Kajler, Yi Zhou, and Xiao Zou.
Proceedings, ISSAC'03, Aug, 2003.
Initial Design of A Web-Based Mathematics Education Framework, by Paul S. Wang, Norbert Kajler, Yi Zhou, and Xiao Zou.
(workshop paper at IAMC'2002).
Mathematics over the Internet/Web: A Protocol-based Approach
by P. Wang, Q. Guo and W. Liao.
(Proc., International Conference on
Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications (PDPTA'02),
June 2002, pp. 2190-2196).
Mathematics Education Markup Language, by Paul S. Wang, Yi Zhou, and Xiao Zou. (poster and demonstration
Proceedings of E-Learn 2002 World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate,
Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education October 15-19, 2002;
Design, Implementation, and Processing Support of MeML,
by David Chiu, Yi Zhou, Xiao Zou, and Paul S. Wang (ICM), IAMC'03
WME Middle School Pilot Project
This is an OBR research challenge funded pilot project to perform trial
deployment of the WME technologies for middle school mathematics
Please visit the pilot project site for more details.
WME Framework Software Components
- The Mathematics Education Markup Language (MeML)---public dtd loacation http://icm.mcs.kent.edu/MeML/dtd/MeML.dtd.
- Woodpecker---A client-side Page Processor
- MadMath---An MeML authoring tool
- fraction.wme---An experimental WME serivce for fraction computations.
- lineplot.wme---An experimental WME serivce for plotting straight lines.
- twoline.wme---An experimental WME serivce for solving linear equations and plotting lines.
- polynomial.wme A---An experimental WME serivce for simple polynomial computations.
- polynomial.wme B---An experimental WME serivce for polynomial GCD.
- polynomial.wme C---An experimental WME serivce for polynomial factoring.
- polynomial.wme D---An experimental WME serivce for solving linear polynomials in one variable.
- fraction.mesp---An experimental MESP
conforming WME serivce for fractions.